Understanding Transaction Analysis: Key Concepts and Techniques by Aysha Saifi HustleVentureSG Dec, 2023

Businesses are involved in thousands of business activities every single day. In order to record this financial data so that eventually we can produce the financial statements, we use the accounting equation and its elements to record business activities. Using these elements, we will perform an accounting transaction analysis that will allow us to correctly record every transaction. Next, you need to analyze how the transaction affects each of the identified accounts. Determine whether the account will increase or decrease and by how much.

It depends on what type of account that it is as to whether the account balance increases or decreases. Jeff bought supplies, so that means that the balance in the supplies account increases $275, so it’s debited in the amount of $275. He paid for the supplies with a check, so that means that the cash account decreases $275 and is credited $275.

In the double-entry accounting system, every transaction affects at least two accounts. In the first step of transaction analysis, identify and extract the names of these accounts from the transaction. These account titles must align with the organization’s Chart of Accounts (COA) entries and correspond to those in the general ledger. Owners’ equity, also known as stockholders’ equity or shareholder’s equity, is the value the company’s owners have in their claim to the company’s assets. The partnership divides the owner equity among its members, allocating each member’s share to an individual account. Transaction analysis is the act of examining a transaction to decide how it affects the accounting equation.

  1. We’ll review how each transaction affects the basic accounting equation.
  2. Various definitions of terms used in accounting were provided earlier in the chapter.
  3. On the asset side of
    the equation, we show an increase of $20,000.
  4. This is the reason that the balance sheet always balances.
  5. Shareholders’ equity, also known as owners’ equity or stockholders’ equity, represents the residual interest in the company’s assets after deducting liabilities.

For example, the signing of a rental agreement is not in itself an accounting transaction as there is no monetary amount involved. However, the payment of a deposit under the rental agreement is an accounting transaction, it relates to the business, and there is a monetary amount involved. Let’s read more about normal balances of accounts and rules of debit and credit here.

Transaction Analysis Definition, Types & Examples

T-accounts use debits, which increase the balance of asset accounts and lower the amount of debt or owner’s equity accounts, respectively. As a result, the revenue recognition principle requires recognition https://simple-accounting.org/ as revenue, which increases equity for $5,500. The increase to assets would be reflected on the balance sheet. The income statement would see an increase to revenues, changing net income (loss).

Will this increase or decrease lead to each account being debited or credited?

The accounting transaction analysis described in the six steps above, is best set out in table format to ensure that important considerations about the transaction are not overlooked. It’s crucial to review each transaction during an accounting period to ensure accurate recording of financial records. The initial phase of the accounting cycle consists of recording transactions, balancing the books, and reporting financial results to stakeholders. According to the
revenue recognition principle, the company cannot recognize that
revenue until it provides the service.

Transaction Analysis and the Accounting Equation

Accurate bookkeeping and financial accounting are crucial for proper recording of business transactions. This attention to detail is crucial to building a long-lasting, profitable company. Every valid business transaction financially transaction analysis accounting impacts the entity’s financial position. This impact refers to the increase or decrease in the accounts identified in the first step. In the second step, classify the nature of the accounts identified in the first step.

The same premise applies to transaction analysis as it does to the accounting equation. In the above example, cash is an asset account and capital is an owner’s equity/capital account. Consider learning more about the classification of accounts. Note that the accounting equation described in the previous chapter remains in balance. Assets have gone up by $2,000 while the liability side of the equation has also increased by the same amount to reflect the source of this increase in the company’s assets. Accounting transaction analysis lies at the heart of the accounting process.

The reduction in income here serves to decrease retained earnings. Because both assets and retained earnings go down by the same amount, the accounting equation continues to balance. By using T-accounts, accountants can visually track and analyze the impact of transactions on specific accounts. This method helps ensure accuracy and facilitates the preparation of financial statements, such as balance sheets and income statements, based on the recorded transactions. The accounting equation remains balanced because there is a $3,500 increase on the asset side, and a $3,500 increase on the liability and equity side. This change to assets will increase assets on the balance sheet.

An accounting transaction analysis is the first step of the recording process of the accounting cycle. This is the process of analyzing business transactions to determine their effects on the books. If it is determined that the transaction is going to have an effect on the books, then it needs to be determined which accounts it affects. Once these steps of the accounting transaction analysis are completed, the next step of the recording process can begin.

The purpose of identifying the type of account in step 3. Above, is to make it easier to decide whether an increase or decrease requires the account to be debited or credited. The other account involved is John’s capital account, which would be credited.

We now analyze each of these transactions, paying attention to
how they impact the accounting equation and corresponding financial
statements. Accountants view financial transactions as economic events that change components within the accounting equation. These changes are usually triggered by information contained in source documents (such as sales invoices and bills from creditors) that can be verified for accuracy.

In a T-account, a credit is a right-side entry that lowers the asset account and raises the liabilities or owner’s equity account. The main focus of this course will be the asset side of the balance sheet (statement of financial position). However, we will review some of the basic and fundamental accounting transactions as a review before we begin an in-depth study of a company’s assets. The last thing that you really need to know before you can begin transaction analysis goes back to the accounting equation. If you recall, the accounting equation states that assets are equal to the sum of the total of liabilities and owner’s equity.

For financial transactions that affect assets, dividends, and expenses, increases are recorded by debits and decreases by credits. A company can recognize an accrued expense (such as a salary) as incurred or wait until payment. This decision depends on the preference of company officials. The end result (an expense is reported and cash decreased) is the same, but the recording procedures differ. Sequentially, it is a part of overall journalizing process which is the next step of accounting cycle. Each business transaction must be properly analyzed so that it can be correctly journalized and made part of entity’s accounting record.

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