Information and Communication Technologies, Organisations and Skills: Convergence and Persistence AI & SOCIETY

The sender with monochronic orientation will send one message and expect the task to be completed as scheduled. His linear cultural background will be offended if the result is the contrary. Similarly, the sender who places a high value on rules and regulations would send messages of punishment to those who break them but reward those who keep them without minding his relationships with them. An effective sender of messages to a cross-cultural society should state his ideas clearly, offer explanations when needed, or even repeat the whole communication process if he does not get the appropriate feedback.

It took a while before papers reached Europe and different parts of the world. Papers were often produced in large quantities and, in 105 AD, Cai Lun, a Chinese court dignitary, created the process of producing sheets of paper using shredded tree bark, old rags, and fishing nets (Hunter, 1978). If the sender is a person, Malec (2018) refers to him as the carrier of intangible culture and the creator of the tangible ones. The encoding includes selecting words, symbols, or gestures in composing a message. The sender should encrypt, transfer meaning, or package his messages in ways that the receivers can access them.

This target hinges on education promoting peace, non-violence, and cultural diversity as precursors to sustainable development. Encouraging respect for cultural diversity within acceptable standards facilitates cultural understanding and peace. The United Nations recognizes that culture is implicitly crucial to the achievement of the SDGs. No meaningful development can occur outside any cultural context because every person is born into a culture.

  1. Any of the steps can become a barrier since culture influences the behaviour of both senders and receivers of messages.
  2. “I think there’s a group of people—fans and artists alike—out there to whom music is more than just a file on your computer, more than just a folder of MP3s,” says Brad Rose, founder of a Tulsa, Oklahoma-based cassette label (Hogan, 2010).
  3. Likewise, Rowley and Benson (2002) explore the difficulties and challenges facing HRM convergence theory in the Asian context (please refer to the SI in HRMR about the Chinese context, Zhang, 2012).

The Arabs also brought paper making to Europe in the eleventh century when they conquered Spain and Sicily. As a result of this paper innovation, libraries expanded and flourished (Hannawi, 2012). The invention of paper enabled the mass circulation of information in different formats, such as books and newspapers. The manufacturing of paper in large quantities began in the nineteenth century when Louis Nicole Robert created the first paper-making machine that was able to produce a 60-centimeter-long sheet.

The term full text was used to describe the indexing and retrieval of a whole document compared to earlier bibliographic systems that were limited to bibliographic data and abstracts only. The development of the WWW followed significant advances information system in the nineties including scanning and optical character recognition, document management, hypertext, hypermedia, and multimedia. The development of HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the hypertext markup language (HTML) have changed the way people access information using links and web-based search engines. The development of Web search engines in the mid-1990s have revolutionized the way people access information.

Library and Information Science (LIS) is an approach adopted by graduate schools in the United States and aims to bring together people from the traditional field of library science and the newly evolving field of information science. It recognizes the interdisciplinary nature of the profession and the need to equip students with soft and hard skills concerning information creation, organization, management, and the use of information in all forms (Estabrook, 2010). LIS has emerged as an academic discipline that prepares students at different academic levels and eases the tension between library science and information science. Library science as a field of study originated from the “Philosophies of Enlightenment.” Thomas Jefferson and other American founders considered “libraries and information” key to the new democracy (Rubin, 2004). The nineteenth century was a productive time period for the development of tools for organizing information. For instance, the Library of Congress Classification, the Dewey decimal classification, and the Index to Periodical Literature were all developed in the nineteenth century and they are all still widely used in today’s information society.

Globalization has compelled people from widely divergent cultural backgrounds to work together. Second, the trend of combining both structural and semantic approaches to examine public engagement in contexts such as activism, political participation, and social causes was evident in the network of public discourse cluster (e.g., Kaiser, 2017). It also presents opportunities for bridging between areas of research as nodes belonging to the clusters of public discussion and flow network (e.g., Benkler et al., 2015) and group, organizational, and public communication network (e.g., Tateo, 2005) spread to other clusters. Together, this suggests the narrow OSN research has converged, theoretically and methodologically.

Data availability

“The monolithic empires of mass media are dissolving into an array of cottage industries…. Media barons of today will be grasping to hold onto their centralized empires tomorrow…. The combined forces of technology and human nature will ultimately take a stronger hand in plurality than any laws Congress can invent.”[16] The new media companies claimed that the old media would be absorbed fully and completely into the orbit of the emerging technologies. Whether organizations and their HR practices are converging—becoming more similar—(convergence theory) or diverging in their practices (divergence theory) is a matter of intense scholarly interest.

Models of access to ICT

A culture-literate communicator can reduce miscommunication arising from a low appreciation of cultural differences so that a clement communication environment is created and sustained. This paper looks at the United Nations’ recognition of culture and how cultural differences shape interpersonal communication. It then proposes strategies to enhance cross-cultural communication at every communication step. It advocates that for the senders and receivers of messages to improve communication efficiency, they must be culture and media literates. The primary papers formed five major clusters (see Figure 2b and the Online Appendix), which reveals two interesting findings. First, unlike broad OSN research papers, all the five clusters of the narrow OSN research were relatively dispersed and interspersed with one another.

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However, we also identified some divergence, the most notable of which is the presence of the disciplinary boundary. For instance, in the secondary papers of the broad OSN research, clusters are largely distinct and independent of others. This suggests that research in OSNs awaits more integration in its intellectual roots. Moreover, primary papers in the broad OSN research sample have a single cluster mainly consisting of papers published in Social Networks. These results indicate the disciplinary boundary between communication and network science. Nonetheless, compared to the clear disciplinary distinction in the co-citation network of the secondary papers, there exists some bridging between the network science cluster and others in the bibliographic coupling network of the primary papers.

Dewey recognized the importance of working with other disciplines and helped establish the American Library Association (ALA) in 1876. In 1926, the Carnegie Corporation funded the first Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago (Richardson, 2010). The culture industry encourages economic growth through cultural tourism, handicraft production, creative industries, agriculture, food, medicine, and fisheries. Culture is learned social values, beliefs, and customs that some people explain the information and communication professions: convergence and divergences. accept and share collectively. It includes all the broad knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, customs, and other experiences and habits acquired by man as a member of a particular society. This seems to support Guiso, Paola and Luigi (2006, p. 23) view of culture as “those customary beliefs and values that ethnic, religious, and social groups transmit fairly unchanged from generation to generation.” They assert that there is a causality between culture and economic outcomes.

Significantly, cultural cognition influences how people process information from different sources and suggests policies they may support or oppose (Rachlinski, 2021). Culture can drive sustainable development (United Nations, 2015; De Beukelaer and Freita, 2015; Kangas et al., 2017; Heckler, 2014; Dessein et al., 2015; and Hosagrahar, 2017). Intriguingly, the traditional research methods for new media research cluster covered methods such as grounded approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and content analysis (Berelson, 1952).

Kinds of Convergence

Given the salience of OSNs in CMC research more specifically and communication research more generally, communication scholars can benefit by understanding the opportunities and challenges in OSN research. To achieve this goal, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of research on OSNs in the past 20 years. Based on the results, we identify the convergence and divergence in existing OSN research and present an agenda for future research. For example SMS voting became popular in the present times and increased audience interactivity in the case of both print (such as newspaper) and broadcasting media (such as television and radio).

Formal education in the information and knowledge professions started when Melvil Dewey became the librarian at Columbia College in 1883. Melvil Dewey is not much known for his role in library and information science education as much as his role in creating the famous Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system. Dewey’s library classification system was based on the classification of knowledge by Sir Francis Bacon (Wiegand, 1998).

Sveiby (1997) viewed knowledge management as consisting of an IT-track (management of data and information) and the people perspective labeled as the people-track (people-centered approach). We view knowledge management as an interdisciplinary approach to dealing with all aspects of knowledge processes and practices; that is, it is the amalgamation of people, technology, and processes. At the turn of the century, the library profession expanded to include new areas of emphasis, new specializations, and new disciplines. In the next three sections, we discuss information science, knowledge management, and data science. The big shift and major transformation happened in the field was with the invention of computers and the automation of library functions. The automation of the card catalog and the ability to access bibliographic records online marked an important step in the transformation of library profession.

However, following the Islamic empire, where science and writing were encouraged, and after the Renaissance in Europe, libraries started to flourish, especially in newly founded universities and academic institutions. There is no shortage of definitions of data science (Kempler and Mathews, 2017). Most of these definitions are focused on data science as an interdisciplinary field that used methods, processes, and algorithms from related fields such as statistics, computer science, and information science.

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